NON-OPIOID CHRONIC PAIN MANAGEMENT OPTIONS
Chronic pain is defined here as pain lasting more than 3 months not related to cancer or palliative care. Consult your primary health care provider for diagnosis and to discuss pain-management treatment options.
ACUPRESSURE - the application of pressure (as with the thumbs or fingertips) to the same discrete points on the body stimulated in acupuncture that is used for its therapeutic effects
ACUPUNTURE - a system of complementary medicine that involves pricking the skin or tissues with needles, used to alleviate pain and to treat various physical, mental, and emotional conditions
BIOFEEDBACK - the use of electronic monitoring of a normally automatic bodily function in order to train someone to acquire voluntary control of that function
COGNITIVE BEHAVIOR THERAPY (CBT) - a type of psychotherapy in which negative patterns of thought about the self and the world are challenged in order to alter unwanted behavior patterns or treat mood disorders such as depression
-- Ice for new injuries for first 24-48, hours at intervals no longer than 20 minutes, to reduce inflammation and swelling (ice should not have direct contact with skin). Icing at intervals can also be used as an intermittent anti-inflammatory treatment
-- Heat for pain longer than 48 hours that recurs to bring blood to the area promoting healing and pain relief (contraindicated for diabetics/poor circulation/open wounds or stitches)
PHYSICAL THERAPY - physical therapy once specially designed for the affected area offers strengthening and pain relief
MASSAGE - scientific manipulation of soft tissues of the body to normalize those tissues, relieving pain
MEDITATION – Active & Passive
MYOFASCIAL RELEASE - treats skeletal muscle immobility and pain by breaking up scar tissue, relaxing contracted muscles, improving blood and lymphatic circulation, and stimulating the stretch reflex in muscles
PSYCHOTHERAPY – talk therapy as an alternative or adjunctive to medication
RELAXATION - ACTIVE - Gardening, Biking, Jogging PASSIVE - Reading, Visualization, Music
THERACANE - a self-massage tool used to apply deep pressure to trigger points and sore muscles
TRANSCUTANEOUS ELECTRICAL NERVE STIMULATION (TENS UNIT) - a device that sends small electrical currents to targeted body parts relieving pain
YOGA (EXCEPT BIKRAM) - a Hindu spiritual and ascetic discipline including breath control, simple meditation, and the adoption of specific bodily postures, is widely practiced for health and relaxation
Kneisl, C. R. (2013). Complementary, Alternative, and Integrative Healing Practices. In C. Kneisl & E. Trigoboff (Eds.), Contemporary Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
Fontaine, K. L. (2011). Complementary and alternative therapies for nursing practice (3rd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
NON-OPIOID CHRONIC PAIN MANAGEMENT MEDICATIONS
Chronic pain is defined here as pain lasting more than 3 months not related to cancer or palliative care. Consult your primary health care provider for diagnosis and to discuss chronic pain-management medications to discuss risks and benefits.
NON-BENZODIAZEPINE MUSCLE RELAXANTS
NSAIDS (ACETAMINOPHEN, ASPIRIN, IBUPROFEN, NAPROXEN)
TOPICAL CREAMS CONTAINING INGREDIENTS SUCH AS CAMPHOR, CAPSICAM, KETAMINE, LIDOCAINE, NEURONTIN
Trigoboff, E., Wilson, B. A., Shannon, M. T., & Stang, C. L. (2005). Psychiatric Drug Handbook. (1st ed.). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Prentice Hall.